Oracle Net Services
Version 11.2.0.3
 
General Information
Windows Note: to find used ports on a Windows server:

c:\> netstat -a

to find the executable using that port:

c:\> netstat -b

to find the port by protocol:

c:\> netstat -p TCP (or other protocol name)

for help with additional options:

c:\> netstat -h
 
SQLNET.ORA Parameters: Node Checking
Note: Protocol specific parameters are not dynamic. They are read only at startup.

In 8i place in protocol.ora
In 9i and above place in sqlnet.ora
Node checking: Required for Excluded and Invited nodes TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING=<yes/no>
tcp.validnode_checking=yes
Excluding nodes: Use this parameter to specify which clients are denied access to the database TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=<hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address,...>
tcp.excluded_nodes=(spammer.hacker.com, mktg.us.acme.com, 144.25.5.25)
Invited nodes: Use this parameter to check for invited and excluded nodes. This list takes precedence over the TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameter if both lists are present TCP.INVITED_NODES=<hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...>
tcp.invited_nodes=(sales.us.acme.com, hr.us.mlib.com, 144.185.5.73)
TCP delay: Use this parameter to preempt delays in buffer flushing within the TCP/IP protocol stack TCP.NODELAY=<yes/no>
tcp.nodelay=yes
Set TCP Connection Establishment Timeout (11gR2+) TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT=<seconds>
tcp.connect_timeout=45
Set TCP Outbound Connection Timeout (10gR2+) TCP.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=<seconds>
tcp.outbound_connect_timeout=60
 
Additional SQLNET.ORA Parameters
Authentication Services sqlnet.authentication_services (<value>)
Value Description
NONE Disables logging on without password
NTS NT operating system authentication
ALL All authentication methods
 
For Advanced Security Only
dcegssapi DCE GSSAPI authentication
kerberos5 Kerberos authentication
radius RADIUS authentication
sqlnet.authentication_services = (NONE)
Bequeath Detach Turns signal handling on or off for UNIX systems

Options <yes | no>
Default: no
bequeath_detach=yes
Client Identifier Sets a unique identifier for a client computer. The identifier is passed to the listener with any connection request and is included in the Audit Trail. The identifier can be any alphanumeric string up to 128 characters long.
sqlnet.client_registration=42
Connection Routing names.directory_path=(<values>)
names.directory_path=(LDAP, TNSNAMES, ONAMES, HOSTNAME)
Inactive Session Expiration Time Kill inactive SQLNET sessions. If set to a non-zero value enables DCD (Dead Connection Detection)

sqlnet.expire_time = <integer_minutes>
sqlnet.expire_time=10
Minimum Client Version sqlnet.allowed_logon_version= <version_number>
sqlnet.allowed_logon_version=11
Names Directory Path names.directory_path = (order_of_naming_methods_for_client_name_resolution)

Naming Method Values:
directory naming A naming method that resolves a database service, net service name, or net service alias to a connect descriptor stored in a central directory server
external naming A naming method that uses a third-party naming service, such as NIS or CDS
host naming Name resolution in a TCP/IP environment to resolve names through the existing name resolution service.
local naming A naming method that locates network addresses by using information configured and stored on each individual client's tnsnames.ora file. Local naming is most appropriate for simple distributed networks with a small number of services that change infrequently.
Network Information Service (NIS) Sun Microsystems' Yellow Pages (yp) client/server protocol
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames, onames, hostname)
Names Server Default Domain names.default_domain=<domain_name>
names.default_domain=mlib.org
RECV_BUF_SIZE Specifies the buffer space limit for receive operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

Default is operating system specific (32K for Solaris 2.6)
recv_buf_size=9375000
SEND_BUF_SIZE Specifies the buffer space limit for send operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

Default is operating system specific (8K for Solaris 2.6)
send_buf_size=9375000
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE Oracle recommends setting this parameter in both the client-side and server-side sqlnet.ora file to ensure the same SDU size is used throughout a connection. When the configured values of client and database server do not match for a session, the lower of the two values is used.

Default 2048  (2K) / Range 512 to 32768 (32K)
default_sdu_size=32768
Indicate a listening end-point is rate limited RATE_LIMIT <YES | NO | integer>
(RATE_LIMIT=YES)

(or)

(RATE_LIMIT=15)
Connection rate limit CONNECTION_RATE_LIMIT = <integer>
connection_rate_listener=15
Security Parameters
Admin Restrictions Requires that anyone making listener changes have WRITE privileges on the .ORA files.

sqlnet.admin_restirctions_listener = <ON | OFF>

Default: OFF
admin_restrictions_listener=ON
Cryptography Seed Value This optional parameter is required for when encryption or checksumming are turned on. Encryption is turned on if the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT parameter is specified for the client and the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER parameter is specified for the database server

sqlnet.crypto_seed = <10_to_70_random_characters>

Default: qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1
sqlnet.crypto_seed=pqowieuryt;laksjdhfgmznxbcv,.s1
Checksum Client Behavior sqlnet.checksum_client = <accepted | rejected | requested | required>
sqlnet.checksum_client=required

Default: accepted
Checksum Server Behavior sqlnet.checksum_server = <accepted | rejected | requested | required>
sqlnet.checksum_server=required

Default: accepted
Checksum Type Client Behavior sqlnet.crypto_checksum_types_client = <md5 | sha1>
sqlnet.crypto_checksum_types_client=md5

Default: accepted
Checksum Type Server Behavior sqlnet.crypto_checksum_types_server = <md5 | sha1>
sqlnet.crypto_checksum_types_server=md5

Default: 
Encryption Client sqlnet.encryption_client = <accepted | rejected | requested | required>
sqlnet.encryption_client=required

Default: accepted
Encryption Server sqlnet.encryption_server = <accepted | rejected | requested | required>
sqlnet.encryption_server=required

Default: accepted
Encryption Type: Client sqlnet.encryption_types_client = <value>

value choices:
3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112 bit) option
3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168 bit) option
des for standard 56 bit key size
des40 for 40 bit key size
rc4_40 for 40 bit key size
rc4_56 for 56 bit key size
rc4_128 for 128 bit key size
rc4_256 for 256 bit key size
sqlnet.encryption_types_client=(rc4_256)

Default: all available algorithms 
Encryption Type: Server sqlnet.encryption_types_server = <value>

value choices:
3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112 bit) option
3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168 bit) option
des for standard 56 bit key size
des40 for 40 bit key size
rc4_40 for 40 bit key size
rc4_56 for 56 bit key size
rc4_128 for 128 bit key size
rc4_256 for 256 bit key size
sqlnet.encryption_types_server=(rc4_256)

Default: all available algorithms
TNSNAMES Parameters
Connection Expansion (11gR2 RAC with Scan Address) -- the initial TNSNAMES entry

(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
  (LOAD_BALANCE=off)(FAILOVER=on)
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (LOAD_BALANCE=on)
    (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-scan)(PORT=1521))
    (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.example.com)))
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (LOAD_BALANCE=on)
    (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=backup-scan)(PORT=1521))
    (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.example.com))))

-- expands internally to:

(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
  (LOAD_BALANCE=off)(FAILOVER=on)
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST=
      (LOAD_BALANCE=on)
      (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-1)(PORT=1521))
      (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-2)(PORT=1521)))
      (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.example.com)))
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST=
      (LOAD_BALANCE=on)
      (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=backup-1)(PORT=1521))
      (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=backup-2)(PORT=1521)))
    (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.example.com))))
Connection Pooling Follow the DBMS_CONNECTION_POOL link below

To enable DRCP connection pooling set USE_ENHANCED_POLL=on in the server sqlnet.ora file
IPV6 Mapping Use URL syntax to specify IPv6 addresses

[2001:fe8::12]:1522/sales.us.example.com:dedicated/inst1

-- is equivalent to

(DESCRIPTION=
  (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=2001:fe8::12)(PORT=1522))
  (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=ataload.mlib.com)
    (INSTANCE_NAME=alpha3)
    (SERVER=dedicated)))
Infiniband Mapping (DESCRIPTION=
  (ADDRESS_LIST=
  (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=SDP)(HOST=alpha1.mlib.org)(PORT=1526))
  (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=SDP)(HOST=alpha2.mlib.org)(PORT=1526))
  (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=dataload.mlib.com))
TNSPING Parameters
Common usage variations tnsping '(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=<hostname>)(PORT=1521))' 50
tnsping '(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=<localhost>)(PORT=1521))' 50
tnsping '(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=<x.y.z.n>)(PORT=1521))' 50
Trace Directory tnsping.trace_directory=<Null, logfile_location>
tnsping.trace_directory=$ORACLE_HOME/network/log
Trace Level tnsping.trace_level=<off, admin, support, user>
tnsping.trace_level=admin
Connection Tracing Parameters
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT log_directory_client = <operating system path>
log_directory_client=/oracle/network/log
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER log_directory_server = <operating_system_path>
log_diretory_server=/oracle/network/log
LOG_FILE_CLIENT log_file_client = <file_name>
log_file_client=sqlnet.log
LOG_FILE_SERVER log_file_server = <file_name>
log_file_server=sqlnet.log
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT trace_level_client = <trace_level>
trace_level_client=16
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER trace_level_sever = <trace_level>
trace_level_server=16
TRACE_LEVEL_UNIQUE Avoid multiple sessions in a single trace file

trace_level_unique = <TRUE | FALSE>
trace_level_unique=TRUE
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT The directory into which the trace file is written
trace_directory_client=c:\temp\network\trace
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER The directory into which the trace file is written
trace_directory_server=/home/oracle/network/trace
 
Connection Manager Parameters
Control Utility CMCTL
Administer administer
CMCTL> administer
Current instance CMAN_perrito is not yet started
Connections refer to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=perrito)(PORT=1521).
The command completed successfully.
CMCTL:CMAN_perrito
Close close connections
CMCTL> 
Exit exit
CMCTL> exit
Help help
CMCTL> 
Quit  
CMCTL> 
Reload  
CMCTL> 
Resume  
CMCTL> 
Save Password save_passwd
CMCTL> 
Set  
CMCTL> 
Show  
CMCTL> 
Shutdown  
CMCTL> 
Sleep  
CMCTL> 
Startup startup
CMCTL> startup
Suspend  
CMCTL>
 
Directory Usage (LDAP) Parameters
   
 
 
Tracing Parameters
   
 
 
Net Services Compression
Note: For information on net services compression click on the "Related Topics" link below.
 
 
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